Efficiency of a solar cell objective how efficient is a solar cell at converting the suns energy into power. Curriculum and experiments using the photovoltaic education kits page 2. Fundamental properties of solar cells, principles and. Jul 28, 2017 the physics guide is a free and unique educational youtube channel. Solar cells are like batteries series and parallel pv cell connections to teach how to measure the current and voltage output of photovoltaic cells. The photoelectric effect allows construction of the automatic door openers that work when you walk through a light beam. Two meters mounted on the front panel to measure the solar cell voltage and current. On average, people pay about eight cents a kilowatthour for electricity from a power company using fuels like coal, uranium or hydropower. Use a current source representing the photoelectric current and resistors representing the shunt and series resistances. Ee462l, power electronics, solar power, iv characteristics version january 31st, 2014 page 3 of 27 yield panel voc. Stateoftheart for assessment of solar energy technologies. Since the voltage is too small for most applications, to produce a useful voltage, the cells are connected in series into. See if you can combine your solar sell with other groups solar cells to make a device that lights a red led. Also, students will experiment with different color filters to determine the energy output of the solar panel at different wavelengths.
Jan 16, 2015 experiment instructions to carry out an investigation into the factors affecting the voltage produced by a solar cell. A unique fact of photovoltaic solar cells is that the power output of the cell can be adjusted by changing the load voltage. They are believed to occupy most up to 48% of the solar cell production worldwide during 200819. Grades 1012 56 connect pv cells in series and take a reading. Options weddings event planning resources rental request form download brochure pdf. Solar cells convert light energy into electrical energy. Silicon is a popular candidate material for solar pv cells because. To draw the iv characteristics of a solar cell and to. After summarising the history of solar cells in chapter. Semiconductors have the capacity to absorb light and to deliver a portion of the energy of the absorbed photons to carriers of electrical current electrons and holes. This is sort of like a light bulb that is acting in reverse. The life cycle of a csi panel starts with mining of crystalline silica in the form. Solar photovoltaic cells introduction one method of converting energy from the sun solar energy is to use a solar cell also known as a photovoltaic cell. A simple solar cell experiment the following experiment was performed using a commercial polycrystalline silicon solar cell with an active area of 8.
Individual solar cell devices can be combined to form modules, otherwise known as solar panels. Integrating a silicon solar cell with a triboelectric nanogenerator. Solar water splitting by photovoltaicelectrolysis with a solarto. In addition to everyday objects such as solar calculators or solar garden lamps, photovoltaic power plants are becoming more and more common. The solar panel system involves four 15watt panels, which are connected jointly to. To plot the vi characteristics of the solar cell and hence determine the fill factor. Remove the quartz boat with the solid, white, phosplus tp. Draw a picture of the set up that allowed you to light a red led. Study of iv characteristic of a solar cell illuminated by an incandescent lamp, at. The ptype silicon is produced by adding atomssuch as boron or galliumthat have one less electron in their outer energy level than does silicon. Nasa studies advanced solar cells on station 1 november 2005 did you know that instruments as small as postage stamps can keep a satellite operating in space for. Solar cell efficiency is the ratio of the electrical output of a solar cell to the incident energy in the form of sunlight.
The light energy, in the form of photons, supplies sufficient energy to the junction to create a number of electronhole pairs. Dye solar cells for real foreword dye solar cells for real 5 thank you for reading our guide to dye solar cell dsc assembly. The common single junction silicon solar cell can produce a maximum opencircuit voltage of approximately 0. This tutorial was inspired by requests from dye solar cell enthusiasts looking for a place to start. A potential difference voltage is thereby created across the pn junction that drives the current and propels the excess free electrons to the conductor on the top of the cell. Measurement of solar cell efficiency the most fundamental of solar cell characterization techniques is the measurement of cell efficiency. The physics of the solar cell sharif university of.
Photovoltaic panels are oriented to maximize the use of the suns light, and the system angles can be. This arrangement is referred to as having the meter in series. Solar cell experiments by jerry loomer a solar cell photovoltaic cell is a solidstate electronic device that takes in light energy and converts it directly into electrical energy. Oct 31, 2016 during the duration of the experiment the solar cell performance was very stable, as expected for iiiv solar cells. Nowadays, many households have converted their home to be powered solely by solar power, reaping all the advantages offered by the sun. I study of iv characteristic of a solar cell illuminated by an incandescent lamp, at different frequencies ii study of iv characteristic of a solar cell illuminated by sun, at different frequencies theory. Application of pn junctions within solar cells is discussed.
An interactive experiment to investigate the factors that determine the current produced by a solar cell. The cell was emcores initial commercial product, and considerable development has gone in to improving the radiation hardness of both the dual junction and the triple junction 5. The amorphous word with respect to solar cell means that the comprising silicon material of the cell lacks a definite arrangement of atoms in the lattice, noncrystalline structure, or not highly structured. Experiment instructions to carry out an investigation into the factors affecting the voltage produced by a solar cell. When charged by the sun, this basic unit generates a dc photovoltage of 0. An experiment to measure the ivcharacteristics of a.
The silicon vapor is doped with acceptors or donors ptype and ntype. Compared to the pristine perovskite solar cells pscs, the diffraction. Schematic diagram of the band structure of an organic solar cell having only one material in the active layer and di. Some of them are very complex and require special tools or knowledge. The generation of electricity from photovoltaic pv solar panels is safe and effective. We also compare operation and e ciencies of devices in section 10. The voltage for maximumpanelpower output is usually about 1617 v.
The solar cell traps all the electrons released by the silicon and pushes them in one direction, which creates an electric current. A complete bulk heterojunction organic solar cell is pictured in figure 5. With this project, you can get down to the atomic level and learn about the world of solidstate electronics as you investigate how solar cells work. Using photovoltaic cells also called solar cells, solar energy can be converted into electricity. A solar cell is basically a semiconductor pn junction device. The solar cell is the photovoltaics building block. Kamat materials itoindium doped tin oxide glass 2 x 2 cm, 2 slides for 1 cell. Few facts of solar energy are explained below a perovskite structured compound is present in perovskite solar cell. A solar cell uses the photovoltaic effect to convert solar radiation directly to dc electrical energy. I setup the equipment outside once the day began to warm. Part 1 was an experiment to determine whether the distance of the source of light from the photovoltaic cell affects the power the cell produces.
It would be a natural assumption that for solar cell performance visible light is necessary. Mccormick, indiana universitypurdue university fort wayne. Solar cells are described as being photovoltaic, irrespective of whether the source is sunlight or an artificial light. This channel covers theory classes, practical classes, demonstrations, animations, physics fun, puzzle and many more of the. Moreover, the stability of the pscs with diffraction. Feb 19, 2017 procedure sheet for the experiment solar cell 1. Solar cells, as promising devices for converting light into electricity, have a. Others are relatively simple to construct which a child can make with i. Such effects combine together to yield an increase in the daily.
A solar cell is an electronic device which directly converts sunlight into electricity. Experiment figure 1 shows a schematic of the galnpdgaas dual junction cell that was used in this study. Nanostructured cells including multicarrier per photon cells, quantum dot and quantum confined cells. The physics of solar cells the photoelectric effect the physical basis for solar cells is the photoelectric effect it was the explanation for this for which einstein won the nobel prize.
An overview of solar cell technology mike mcgehee materials science and engineering global climate and energy projectglobal climate and energy project center for advanced molecular photovoltaics precourt institute stanford university konarka nanosolar. I tested all the tracking and data logging software routines before running the experiment outside with the real tracker hardware. The power of a solar cell is the product of the voltage across the solar cell times the current through the solar cell. Todd kaiser montana state university solar cell lab manual july 2009 this manual was designed for use with the montana microfabrication facility at montana state university. Pure silicon is grown in a furnace in the presence of silicon vapor. An overview of solar cell technology stanford university. Effect of temperature on a solar panel results carrying out the experiment. Usually, it is made of a 100 cm2 silicon wafer whose surface has been treated to maximize light absorption and thus appears dark blue or black.
Introduction to solar cells horizon energy curriculum. Solar cells produce direct current dc electricity and an inverter can be used to change this to alternating current ac electricity. Denis ar con ljubljana, may 2011 abstract this seminar is a short overview of current photovoltaics. The reader is told why pv cells work, and how they are made.
Pv characterization lab purpose in this lab you will measure the current versus voltage for several photovoltaic cells using computer probeware. Lecture 3 types of solar cells experiment 3 generations. The typical bluesilver solar cell has a base of the element silicon. Some of them were scientist starting to investigate the technology, while. Schematic diagram of the band structure of a heterojunction organic solar cell. The circuit allows the electrons to flow to the electronpoor back of the cell from the electronrich front of the cell.
The experiment of double solar energy by reflection light. Fabrication procedure of dyesensitized solar cells k. Solar energy can be part of a mixture of renewable energy sources used to meet the need for electricity. Solar cells are characterized using a voltage current curve.
Today,pv systems are mainly used to generate electricity in areas that are a long way from electric power lines. The second part consists of experiments on a physical prototype system based on basic ups and solar power components. In our experiment, the solar cell and motor had v 1. Proton and electron radiation analysis of gainpzgaas solar cells. How does solar cell output vary with incident light intensity. Therefore, asi amorphous solar cell is comparatively cheaper and widely available. Solar cells experiment by focus educational software. Single and polycrystalline silicon growth, impurity diffusion, contacts. One way to do this is to combine two solar cells in series or in parallel to see if one. Curriculum and experiments using the photovoltaic education kits page 2 contents matching the course with standards activities 1.
Many different solar cell technologies are being developed, for various applications rooftops, solar power plants, satellites, backpacks or clothing, etc. In our solar cell experiment, we were tasked with experimenting with solar panels and how they function. Current and future cost of photovoltaics fraunhofer ise. The rate of energy generation or power from the solar cell.
Abstract solar cells are an alternative method for generating electricity directly from sunlight. Light shining on the solar cell produces both a current and a voltage to generate electric power. Solar cells are a promising and potentially important technology and are the future of sustainable energy for the human civilization. This channel covers theory classes, practical classes, demonstrations, animations.
Solar cell, nxt robot, colored filters, flashlight, ruler, voltage probe plus alligator clips, a labview program and excel spreadsheet were set up prior to class to record our data as we conducted the experiments. During the duration of the experiment the solar cell performance was very stable, as expected for iiiv solar cells. To investigate any relationship present between the distance between a solar cell and a lamp, and the current output of the solar cell, at a fixed voltage. Photovoltaic cell experiments lab activity solar 4r schools. An innovative hybrid pv device, combining crystalline silicon technologies and a. Experiments with pv cells uo solar radiation monitoring. If you search for good diy solar power project for your home there are thousands available on internet.
Pdf cut solar cells have received considerable attention recently as. Solar energy is undoubtedly the future trend of energy. Gray purdue university, west lafayette, indiana, usa 3. When light reaches the pn junction, the light photons can easily enter in the junction, through very thin ptype layer. Under illumi nation from an artificial light source with an intensity of 8. Solar cell is the basic unit of solar energy generation system where electrical energy is. This article describes the latest information achievement in. It would be a natural assumption that for solar cell performance visible light is. The different pv technologies are discussed in part iii. From here the students use the efficiency of the pv cell and the area of the cell to calculate the energy of the sun at that time of day. Determine the minimum number of solar cells to light a led. The solar cell is the basic building block of solar photovoltaics. Pdf solar cells are a promising and potentially important technology and are the future of sustainable energy for the human civilization. Solar cell mounted on the front panel in a metal box with connections brought out on terminals.
An experiment to measure the ivcharacteristics of a silicon. In the first part of the lab we wanted to see how changing the intensity of light affected the amount of electricity produced by the solar cell. The objective of this experiment is to explore solar cells as renewable energy sources and test their efficiency in converting solar radiation to electrical power. To increase the information input, a survey was sent out to manufacturers of solar panels. Experiment based teaching of solar cell operation and. The second part was an experiment tp determine whether the power output of the cell depended on the kind of light emitted by the source, which we moderated through the use of some filters. A perovskite structured compound is a hybrid organicinorganic lead or tin halidebased material and also has the active layer for harvesting the light. Solar cells convert light energy to electrical energy, so are transducers. The lamp with an incandescent light bulb is still used in the following experiment. Solar photovoltaics is already today a lowcost renewable energy technology.
Types of solar cells experiment 3 generations generation 1. The experiment of double solar energy by reflection light method. Pdf analytical study of the electrical output characteristics of csi. Solar cell experiment essay solar cell experiment introduction. Part b semiconductor devices experiment series 3 solar cell solar cell prelaboratory assignment draw the equivalent circuit representing a solar cell. Figure 2 shows a historical record of solar cell efficiencies. Oct 30, 2011 in this weeks class we conducted a series of experiments concerning photovoltaic cells. Load the silicon wafers next to the sources with the.
The physics guide is a free and unique educational youtube channel. By adjusting the load voltage, the cell s current output can also be adjusted. The solar cell system we developed in this project is dyesensitized solar cell, composed of the tio 2 layer acting as the electron carrier and the organic dye layer acting. We give the upper limit to the solar cell e ciency. How a solar cell works a solar cell is made of two types of semiconductors, called ptype and ntype silicon. Lecture 3 types of solar cells experiment 3 generations generation 1. The cells are tested under varying resistance loads and varying light levels. This process requires firstly, a material in which the absorption of light raises an electron to a higher energy state. Heres how to calculate the power the solar cell delivers to the motor. Solar water splitting by photovoltaicelectrolysis with a solar to. Standardized testing allows the comparison of devices manufactured at different companies and laboratories with different technologies to be compared. Solar cells are used on spaceships like the international space station pictured below, but are also used on earth in places that get lots of sunlight throughout the year. The operating manual provided with the system suggested an output voltage of.914 1339 1050 399 1503 1084 803 795 1159 832 1503 462 743 282 783 1571 18 290 547 1506 1458 550 102 1428 480 471 837 1324 1323 395 30 798 793 563 123 869 542 419 271 1372 1166 1092 239