Mesoaortic compression of the left renal vein nutcracker syndrome produces both obstruction and reflux, resulting in symptoms of pelvic congestion. Clinically, nutcracker syndrome is characterized by intermittent hematuria with or without left flank or abdominal pain. In some severe cases of nutcracker syndrome, your doctor may suggest vascular surgery to relieve the pressure on your left renal vein. Nutcracker syndrome ncs describes left renal vein compression between the superior mesenteric artery and the aorta. The diagnosis of the nutcracker syndrome was suspected based on clinical examination, doppler scan, duplex ultrasound scan, computed tomography scan, and magnetic resonance imaging.
The left ovarian or spermatic vein empties into the left renal vein and is an. Renal nutcracker syndrome ncs is a condition that occurs when the left renal vein the vein that carries blood purified by the left kidney becomes compressed. These syndromes, the pathogenesis of some of which remains controversial, can result in nonspecific symptoms of epi. The pain is severe around the week before my monthly and the week after.
You are your own best advocate when it comes to pelvic pain. Vulvovaginal varicosities and pelvic congestion syndrome. A summary of south coast vascular laboratorys protocol for pelvic vein duplex ultrasonography, including equipment, patient positioning, ultrasound settings, and technique. Pelvic congestion syndrome pcs, also known as pelvic vein incompetence or pelvic vein reflux, is a chronic medical condition in women caused by varicose veins in the lower abdomen. I had a ct scan with contrast dye and my kidneys looked great. Imaging techniques found a large kidney with nutcracker syndrome.
Venous coil embolization is used when there are varicose veins in the pelvis that are causing significant pain pelvic congestion syndrome. Embolization of the ovarian and iliac veins for pelvic. The nutcracker phenomenon is usually caused by compression of the left renal vein by the superior mesenteric artery anteriorly and the aorta posteriorly, although variations of this anatomy have previously been reported. Following are the common symptoms that have been studied in the nutcracker syndrome. Ultrasound diagnostic criteria for pelvic congestion syndrome. Laparoscopic inferior mesentericgonadal vein bypass for the. Nutcracker syndrome is a rare vein compression disorder.
They are formed by separate trunks, which become a single trunk at the level of the 4th lumbar vertebra. I have 2 children, but suffered multiple misscarrages, but thinking they were related to my bloodclotting disorder. The most common nutcracker syndrome variants are anterior involving compression of the lrv by the abdominal aorta and the superior mesenteric artery or posterior involving compression of the lrv between the abdominal aorta and the vertebral column. It occurs when arteries, most often the abdomens aorta and superior mesenteric artery, squeeze the. Now, i am experiencing identical paindiscomfort, but my new gynecologist says i am too old to have pelvic congestion syndrome. When symptomatic, such compressions can result in a variety of uncommon syndromes in the abdomen and pelvis, including median arcuate ligament syndrome mals, maythurner syndrome, nutcracker syndrome, superior mesenteric artery sma syndrome, upj obstruction, ovarian vein syndrome ovs, and other forms of ureteral compression. Timeresolved mr angiography as a useful sequence for. The nutcracker syndrome ns may lead to insufficient perirenal collaterals as well as incompetence of the left ovarian vein with consecutive ovarian vein insufficiency.
This then presents as abdominal pain and discomfort, or groin pain and pelvic pain. The pelvic congestion syndrome ultrasound exam evaluates blood flow direction and diameter of the bilateral internal iliac veins, bilateral ovarian veins, and the left renal vein. A therapeutic option in nutcracker syndrome and ovarian vein. The diagnosis was confirmed by retrograde cinevideoangiography with renocaval gradient determination and catheterization of both internal iliac venous systems. This then presents as abdominal pain and discomfort, or. Nutcracker syndrome ncs is the set of clinical manifestations of venostasis induced by left renal vein lrv compression nutcracker phenomenon between the superior mesenteric artery sma and aorta anterior ncs or between the aorta and spine when the lrv is retroaortic posterior ncs syndrome.
This syndrome results most commonly from the compression of the left renal vein between the abdominal aorta aa and superior mesenteric artery sma, although other variants exist. Nutcracker syndrome is an underdiagnosed occurrence that can also result in. Examination of the gonadal veins the venous territories of the parametrium, mesosalpinx, uterine fundus, and the pampiniform plexus are drained by the ovarian veins. The right ovarian vein drains directly into the inferior vena cava and occasionally into the right renal vein.
In posterior nutcracker syndrome, the left renal vein is typically compressed between the aorta and the spine. Nutcracker syndrome ncs is a rare pathology, caused by compression of the left renal vein lrv between the abdominal aorta aa and the superior mesenteric artery sma, due to reduction of the angle between aa and sma. The pelvic venous syndromes, which include pelvic congestion syndrome and vulvar varicosities, are poorly understood disorders of the pelvic venous circulations. Raising awareness for nutcracker syndrome and venous. Symptoms of pelvic venous congestion chronic pelvic pain, dyspareunia, dysuria, and dysmenorrhea have been attributed to massive gonadal reflux. It occurs when arteries, most often the abdomens aorta and superior mesenteric artery, squeeze the left renal kidney vein. Jul 14, 2017 posts about nutcracker syndrome written by docpark. I am on hrt with hormone pellets containing testosterone and estradiol. Surgical treatment for nutcracker syndrome can include moving the left renal vein and reattaching it, or a left renal vein bypass. My nephrologist believes i may have nutcracker syndrome. The left kidney vein has to cross over the left sided aorta to get to the right sided vena cava. Subsequent phlebogram confirmed the diagnosis of ncp. Thefactthatpcsonlyaffects premenopausal women suggests a strong correlation between pcs and ovarian activity.
Nutcracker syndrome ncs is symptomatic unilateral renal venous hypertension. Laparoscopic inferior mesentericgonadal vein bypass for. Ovarian vein embolization for the treatment of pelvic congestion syndrome. However, obstruction of the gonadal outflow may produce similar symptoms. A 40yearold woman with a solitary left kidney suffered from left lumbar pain and hematuria. Treatment of pelvic venous congestion and the nutcracker syndrome can be. The nutcracker syndrome is a rare but possibly underestimated condition and is seldom suspected in a pregnant patient. Nutcracker syndrome ncs results most commonly from the compression of the left renal vein between the abdominal aorta aa and superior mesenteric artery sma, although other variants exist. Duplex ultrasound investigation in pelvic congestion. Pelvic congestion syndrome some prefer pelvic venous insufficiency 9 is a condition that results from retrograde flow through incompetent valves in ovarian veins. An unusual manifestation of ncs includes varicocele formation and varicose veins in the lower limbs.
Some cases of pelvic varicosities have been associated with mechanical compressive causes, such as uterine malposition causing kinking of the ovarian veins, 16 and the nutcracker syndrome, where the left renal vein is compressed between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery. Unusual coexistence of double inferior vena cava with. Nutcracker syndrome accompanying pelvic congestion. When the kidney vein goes in front of the aorta, it may be pinched by the intestinal artery sma superior mesenteric artery anterior nutcracker syndrome. I have nutcracker syndrome also and i am so happy i found this site. Although often asymptomatic, it may result in varicocele, ovarian vein syndrome, haematuria, flank or abdominal pain, lrv hypertension, and pelviureteral varices. Early resolution of pelvic venous collaterals after endovascular. Instead, blood can flow backwards into other veins and cause them. Measurement of the veins in the inguinal canal gave a diameter 3. Some people may not have symptoms, while others develop severe and. Nutcracker phenomenon refers to compression of the left renal vein, most. Laparoscopic transposition of the left renal vein into the. Our protocol for transabdominal pelvic vein duplex. Pelvic congestion syndrome ultrasound exam, risk factors.
Pelvic congestion syndrome radiology reference article. Nutcracker syndrome is a rare condition, but its rarity doesnt make it any less painful or difficult to deal with. The left testicular vein was disconnected by previous surgery. Whereas a fairly large body of data regarding transcatheter. Embolization of the ovarian and iliac veins for pelvic congestion syndrome page 1 of 5. Gonadal vein transposition for the treatment of nutcracker syndrome. Unique nutcracker phenomenon involving the right renal. Nutcracker phenomenon and nutcracker syndrome mayo clinic. May 15, 2014 the nutcracker syndrome ncs is compression of the left renal vein lrv by the abdominal aorta aa and the superior mesenteric artery sma, manifested by pain, hematuria, varicocele and lower urinary tract symptoms. The nutcracker syndrome ncs is the clinical equivalent of. A totally laparoscopic transposition of the left renal vein was performed. If this treatment option is not available, then the decision to embolize the left ovarian vein should be made based on the degree of left renal venous collateralization.
Doctors often diagnose nutcracker syndrome after ruling out other conditions. The nutcracker syndrome ncs results most commonly from the compression of the left renal vein lrv between the abdominal aorta aa and superior. A diagnosis of left renal vein entrapment nutcracker syndrome, ncs was. Patients with left renal vein compression nutcracker syndrome can be referred for ovarian vein transposition. Is it possible to have pelvic congestion at age 66. This condition results in chronic pelvic pain, estimated to affect onethird of women in the united states pelvic congestion syndrome is caused by dilatation of the ovarian andor. It results when the left renal vein is compressed between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery. Pelvic congestion syndrome pcs is defined as chronic pelvic pain caused by incompetent ovarian veins, with associated venous reflux and venous engorgement 14. Nutcracker syndrome servier phlebolymphologyservier. Nutcracker phenomena can be overdiagnosed by duplex ultrasoundleft ovarian vein reflux can be the cause of renal vein narrowing rather than an effect of obstructive flow. Imaging appearance and nonsurgical management of pelvic. The venous territories of the parametrium, mesosalpinx, uterine fundus, and the pampiniform plexus are drained by the ovarian veins.
The name derives from the fact that, in the sagittal plane andor transverse plane, the sma and. To diagnose nutcracker syndrome, your upmc doctor will. The straight angle between the ovarian vein or testicular vein in males in the case of varicocoele and the renal vein has been proposed as a cause of decreased blood return. Surgical options, abstract nutcracker syndrome is one of the abdominal venous entrapments, caused by compression of the left renal vein between the superior mesenteric artery and the abdominal aorta. Venous coil embolization vein specialists of the carolinas. Last year i had surgery for nutcracker syndrome, and later had my left ovarian vein coiled due to symptoms of pelvic congestion. Nutcracker syndrome symptoms, treatment, causes, surgery. Diagnosing nutcracker syndrome and pelvic congestion syndrome.
Nutcracker syndrome refers to the compression of the left renal vein between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery, which results in elevated left renal vein pressure and possible collateral vein development. Patient is a 43 year old woman who had been having bouts of severe left sided abdominal pain for several years with worsening episodes of nausea and vomiting resulting in several visits to the emergency room. Duplex ultrasound investigation in pelvic congestion syndrome. Nutcracker syndrome can be challenging to diagnose because its symptoms can be like other urologic or gynecologic disorders. The nutcracker syndrome in a venous or even broader scope, vascular compression syndromes is based upon decreased space between the superior mesenteric artery and the aorta in the area of the left renal vein. Although most cases are asymptomatic, this syndrome may result to varicocele, ovarian vein syndrome, hematuria, flank or abdominal pain, lrv hypertension, and pelviuteral varices 3. Mar 22, 2018 nutcracker syndrome ncs refers to the clinical manifestations of ncp. Once the ovarian vein was catheterized, a nonionic lowosmolality contrast dye. Another clinical study has shown that nutcracker syndrome is a frequent finding in varicoceleaffected patients and possibly, nutcracker syndrome should be routinely excluded as a possible cause of varicocele and pelvic congestion. Nutcracker syndrome occurs more frequently in women by the 3rd or 4th decades, although cases have been reported in children. The lumen diameter of the left ovarian vein before opening into the lrv was 5. A simplified approach with gonadal vein transposition posted on june 12, 2016 june 12, 2016 by docpark the patient is a young woman in her twenties who developed severe right sided abdominal and back pain about 4 months prior to presentation associated with bouts of bloody urine. We observed a nutcracker phenomenon in a 42yearold female who underwent portal venous phase computed tomography of the body for oncologic workup. If youve been diagnosed with pcs, then youve likely heard horror stories and misinformation being spread online.
I just recently had a major surgery for something called nutcracker syndrome. Pelvic congestion syndrome pcs is basically a name given to the collection of symptoms and signs caused by pelvic varicose veins. If embolization of incompetent pelvic veins is performed without stenting, embolization will fail because the outflow of these incompetent veins remains obstructed. There are two ovarian veins, right and left, and two internal veins, right and left. Nutcracker phenomenon refers to compression of the left renal vein, most commonly between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery, with impaired blood outflow often accompanied by distention of the distal portion of the vein. The nutcracker syndrome ncs is compression of the left renal vein. July 2018 our protocol for transabdominal pelvic vein duplex ultrasound. May 03, 2017 the term syndrome refers to a group of signs and symptoms primarily occurring together, characteristic of a specific condition.
Renal nutcracker syndrome genetic and rare diseases. Structural causes of pvcs are a history of varicose veins, and multiple pregnancies. The clinical syndrome caused by impingement of the left renal vein lrv between the superior mesenteric artery sma and abdominal aorta has been termed nutcracker syndrome. The syndrome involves the compression or narrowing of the renal vein, which causes the slowing of blood flow from the left kidney. The ultrasound revealed dilated veins in the left inguinal canal and there was a left. Most of the varicose veins are located around the uterus and ovaries and sometimes the bladder and rectum. This leads to lrv varices, left gonadal vein varices and therefore, the pelvic congestion syndrome. Although uncommon, it is an important diagnosis due to the important morbidity associated with it, including the risk of chronic kidney disease from longterm left renal vein lrv hypertension and the risk of lrv thrombosis. Pelvic congestion syndrome pcs is characterized by chronic pelvic discomfort exacerbated by prolonged standing and coitus in women who have periovarian varicosities on imaging. A therapeutic option in nutcracker syndrome and ovarian. In the mixed type, theres a wide range of blood vessel changes that can cause. Nutcracker syndrome is a vascular compression disorder that refers to the compression of the left renal vein most commonly between the superior mesenteric artery sma and aorta, although other variations can exist 1. The nutcracker syndrome ncs is the clinical equivalent of nutcracker phenomenon characterized by a complex of symptoms with substantial variations.
In nutcracker syndrome, the renal vein coming from your left kidney becomes compressed and blood cant flow through it normally. A greater length of the left internal spermatic vein in comparison with the right system and higher venous pressure on the left side caused by the junction of the left internal spermatic vein with the left renal vein. A diagnosis of nutcracker syndrome was made and a left renal. Nutcracker syndrome accompanying pelvic congestion syndrome. Multidetector ct of vascular compression syndromes in the. This can lead to renal venous hypertension, resulting in rupture of thinwalled veins into. This article reports the treatment of two cases of nutcracker syndrome using laparoscopic inferior mesentericgonadal vein bypass, knowing that this treatment option would avoid renal reperfusion injury and lrv hypertension. On rare occasions the kidney vein will go behind the aorta. The nutcracker syndrome is a vascular disorder, but the signs and symptoms are mainly urological or gynecological. I also have a blood clotting disorder on top of the ncs. Patency of the iliocaval veins is assessed as well as diameters of any parauterine veins. Ultrasound assessment of pelvic venous reflux white am. This vascular compression may lead to hypertension of the left renal vein and a possible emergence of collateral veins 4. It is a commonly missed and potentiallytreatable cause of chronic abdominopelvic pain.
There is a wide spectrum of clinical presentations and diagnostic criteria are not well defined, which frequently results in delayed or incorrect diagnosis. Laboratory tests for those cases frequently show signs of microhematuria, usually associated with the nutcracker syndrome, an anatomical variation in which the superior mesenteric artery sma and the aorta perform a clamping of the left renal vein, with consequent reflux in the proximal portion of that vein and of the left ovarian vein. The term syndrome refers to a group of signs and symptoms primarily occurring together, characteristic of a specific condition. These veins drained into the pelvic veins directly. Rather than think of females with pcs as varicocele of the ovary, with a similar etiology of pvr is found in the male, we find that some authors are convinced that pcs is frequently caused by compression syndromes such as nutcracker syndrome or may thurner syndrome rather than simple reflux. Ovarian vein syndrome relation of arteries and veins to ureters, view from the back in medicine, ovarian vein syndrome is a rare possibly not uncommon, certainly underdiagnosed condition in which a dilated ovarian vein compresses the ureter the tube that brings the urine from the kidney to the bladder. It can cause many symptoms in both children and adults, such as flank pain and blood in the urine. Nutcracker syndrome wikimili, the free encyclopedia. The diagnosis of ovarian varices is confirmed by selectively catheterizing specific veins and injecting contrast dye i. The mild nutcracker syndrome can be witnessed in children during the changes their body undergoes due to growth. Mesoaortic compression of the left renal vein nutcracker syndrome produces. A related diagnosis is nutcraker syndrome where the left renal vein is described as being compressed between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery. The nutcracker syndrome results from compression of the left renal vein between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery.
Jun 22, 2017 renal nutcracker syndrome ncs is a condition that occurs when the left renal vein the vein that carries blood purified by the left kidney becomes compressed. It is estimated that approximately 10% of women have incompetent ovarian vein valves and that of these, approximately 40% experience chronic pelvic pain directly as a result of venous congestion. Questions to ask your doctor before treating pelvic. Venography revealed compression of the left renal vein, extensive pelvic varices, and significant engorgement of her left ovarian vein. Nutcracker syndrome is a rare entity caused by extrinsic compression on the left renal vein lrv crossing between the superior mesenteric artery and the aorta. Therefore, pcs can occur because of the failure of valves in any number of these four veins. The current overview of pelvic congestion syndrome and. Insufficiency and varicose veins embolization of the ovarian and iliac veins for. Ncs accompanying pelvic congestion syndrome is a rare pathology that can be easily missed by routine diagnostic methods. Chronic pelvic pain due to ovarian vein and pelvic varices varicose veins is treated using nonsurgical, minimally invasive, transcatheter techniques. Reimplantation of the left renal vein into the infrarenal inferior vena cava is the standard surgical procedure for nutcracker syndrome. The nutcracker syndrome ncs results most commonly from the compression of the left renal vein lrv between the abdominal aorta aa and superior mesenteric artery sma, although other variants exist.525 299 163 485 483 309 1046 175 1239 379 881 954 958 692 1108 1354 1020 165 21 551 1314 1481 815 624 1058 416 1242 465 396 764