A focus group is useful in analysing a topic or getting an opinion on a. Focus group discussion a focus group discussion fgd is a good way to gather together people from similar backgrounds or experiences to discuss a specific topic of interest. A facilitator guides 7 to 11 people in a discussion of their experiences, feelings, and. Can listen attentively with sensitivity and empathy. Insights from two decades of application in conservation article pdf available in methods in ecology and evolution 99. Focus group discussion aslam aman master of public health mphaslam. As discussed previously, fg may be considered as much a standalone research method as one used in conjunction with other methods. Focus group discussions generally last from an hour and a half to two hours, longer than this and the discussion loses momentum sherraden, 2001.
Chapter 6 analyzing focus group results 141 participants, and that a short verbal summary at the conclusion of the discussion allows for verification. Evaluating the efficacy of focus group discussion fgd in. A focus group discussion is a structured discussion used to obtain indepth information qualitative data insight from a group of people about a particular topic. The use of focus group in the research design the goal of a focus group is to have the participants understand the topic of interest to the researcher, irrespective of its use, alone or together with other research methods.
For the purpose of this tutorial, we use the focus groups definition of powell and. It is called a discussion guide, rather than a questionnaire, because it is only meant to be a guide. This publication, introduction to conducting focus groups, is the fifth in a series of guides developed to bring information to this audience about the use of social science tools in their field of work. Focus group participants should be characterized by homogeneity, but with sufficient variation to allow for contrasting opinions. Generate and pretest an interview guide the interview guide sets the agenda for the focus group discussion by establishing the research questions to be addressed in the focus group. The goal of todays meeting is to understand if the internal communications and news you currently receive is effective, relevant and valuable to you. Wherever possible, there should be a focus group team.
Dos and donts of a positive focus group experience 5. In an influential 1972 book, his original definition of the term was a mode of. Focus group, qualitative research, group interview, data collection. One person is the facilitator and the other is the note taker. The guide is designed to help ndi program staff in the field and in d. The analysis sequence continues after the focus group with an immediate debriefing with the moderator and assistant moderator. A focus group discussion or fgd is a qualitative research method in the social sciences, with a particular emphasis and application in the developmental program evaluation sphere. The moderator stimulates discussion with comments or subjects. A focus group interview is a data collection technique in which a small group of people, usually between six and twelve individuals, is guided by a moderator to discuss specific topics in a structured way.
Download limit exceeded you have exceeded your daily download allowance. Conducting the focus group ideally, the focus group is conducted by a team consisting of a moderator and assistant moderator. The method aims to obtain data from a purposely selected group of. A focus group is a form of qualitative research in which a group of people are asked about their perceptions, opinions, beliefs and attitudes towards a product, a service, concept, advertisement, idea, or packaging henderson, naomi r. This paper uses the definition of focus group as a controlled group discussion, on the basis that the group interaction generated through discussion is of prior importance to this methodology. Summary of focus groups lycoming county, pennsylvania. At this time, the moderator makes a quick check to ensure. The moderator can bring any changes in order to better facilitate the discussion during the group discussion. Part of the understanding qualitative research series. It is for this reason that the political party development team produced from proposal to presentation. A focus group is a smallgroup discussion guided by a trained leader. The discussion guide was structured around three primary tasks.
A focus group is a small set of six to ten people who usually share common characteristics such as age, background, geography, etc the set comes together to discuss a predetermined topic. Economic development the economic development focus group included participants representing a range of organizations. Free and open discussion among the respondents results in generation of new ideas that can be very useful for decisionmaking. The groups composition and the group discussion should be carefully planned to create a nonthreatening environment, so that participants feel free to talk openly and give honest.
How to write a focus group discussion guide mrqual. Can you describe the works undertaken by this department. Challenges associated with focus groups are most often attributed to two main factors. The purpose of a focus group is to collect information about peoples opinions, beliefs, attitudes, perceptions, not to come to consensus or make a decision. A definition of focus groups has gradually emerged as having the following. Characteristics of focus group discussions your business.
Groups are usually composed of seven or eight people, selected purposively. Fgds are a predetermined semistructured interview led by a skilled moderator. The moderator raises issues identified in a discussion guide and uses probing questions to solicit opinions. Focus group discussions helped identify the broad thematic areas and the issues which should be researched.
Using a focus group discussion method, we collected data from 23 students. Important skills that a group moderator should possess 3. A focus group is a conversation that focuses on specific questions in a safe and confidential environment. The researcher provides the focus of the discussion, and the data comes. The sample for a focus group has individuals with characteristics of the overall population and can contribute to helping the research gain a greater understanding of the topic. As part of a dissertation research project, an online focus group was created in order to help determine questions and issues to be asked in depth interviews of distance learning students about their motives, barriers and enablers in their decision to enroll in. Faculty sample focus group discussion guide page 1 of 6. Focus groups are a qualitative research method helping researchers collect and. Focus group discussion, oneonone qualitative interview, social.
Below are summary statistics about the participants. Focus group interviews are a qualitative research method that consist of a carefully designed discussion which allows people to express their points of view in a group setting and provide researchers with indicators of program impact. The moderator asks broad questions to elicit responses and generate discussion among. The discussion provided a framework for preparation of a detailed questionnaire to be used for ascertaining stakeholders perceptions about the industry and. The role of the moderator is to guide the focus group discussion by asking predetermined. Instead, i find it more useful to think that the degree of formal structure in a focus group is a decision that the research makes according to the specific purposes of the research project. For supporting focus group materials such as recruitment tips, invitation email templates, consent. Focus group discussion overseas development institute. Hennink and others published introducing focus group discussions find, read and cite all the research you need. Based on classical grounded theory analysis, we found that peertopeer cooperative learning pcl has several advantages. Focus group discussion ppt focus group qualitative. However, in order for the focus group discussion to become successful, some general personal qualities are required.
Heong the focus group discussion fgd is a rapid assessment, semi. Focus group weaknesses as with any research method, focus groups are not without weaknesses. The ideal focus group moderator has the following traits. Included below is an overview of each focus group including summaries of key discussion topics. It is important to have a note taker to record the focus group feedback. Focus group discussion relies on facilitators or moderators to guide the groups discussion berg, 1989. A focus group is most effective with 712 participants.
Methodology problem definition identification of sample identification of. Pdf the purpose of this article is to demonstrate the usefulness of focus group. In virtually every focus group discussion fgd, participants. In this chapter, i will focus on the importance of the focus group method, its history, and its benefits and pitfalls. Homogeneity is most often sought in terms of occupation, social class, educational level, age, education, or family characteristics, and gender unless interaction across these groups is what is driving the study. The region 7w focus group was conducted by consultant staff, as region 7w does not have a.
A focus group is a part of marketing research technique. Serves as a comprehensive guide to focus group discussions, a qualitative research methodology that involves a focus on specific issues, with a predetermined group of people, participating in an interactive discussion. The advantages of focus group discussion are as follows. Introducing focus group discussions request pdf researchgate.
I will guide the conversation by asking questions that each of you can respond to. How to conduct a successful focus group discussion atlan. The design of the focus group discussion was initiated by mpi and refined with substantial input from the dia concessions program. To enhance the credibility of focus group evidence and maximize potential learning from this popular qualitative data collection method, we offer a set of questions to guide evaluators reflection and decision making about focus group design and implementation. It is used to learn more about opinions on a designated topic, and then to guide future action.
A focus group discussion guide sometimes called a topic guide is a questionnaire for focus groups, and for other types of qualitative research, such as individual depth interviews. A focus group interview is an inexpensive, rapid appraisal technique that can provide managers with a wealth of qualitative information on performance of development activities, services, and products, or other issues. If the discussion is well managed, it allows deepseated feelings on a subject to emerge naturally. We conclude that focus groupsare not a quick and easy methodof collecting.
There are no right or wrong answers to these questions. Each focus group was conducted over 2 hours and was held at the lycoming county executive plaza building in williamsport, pa. Focus group discussion ppt free download as powerpoint presentation. Focus groups can help clarify such perplexing information. All focus groups were conducted by regional development commission rdc planning staff to ensure opinions were gathered from nontransit users across greater minnesota. Focus groups are guided conversations among a number of customers or potential customers to help you learn about various aspects of your business, such as your marketing efforts, quality or customer service. Focus group discussion at chucchepati site, kathmandu facilitated by iom 29th july to 31st july, 2015 introduction six focus group discussions were held at chucchepati site over the course of three days with the objective of finding out the return intention of the site residents. In this case, the idea is to use a small number of exploratory groups, in an initial stage of the research, to guide the construction of the topics of the interview.
Sample focus group discussion guide what follows is a sample focus group discussion guide that can be used to collect information from faculty about their interactions with entering students. Focus group interviews nurture different perceptions and points of view and are used to gather. Focus group discussion is frequently used as a qualitative approach to gain an indepth understanding of social issues. Focus groups explicitly use group interaction as part of the method kitzinger 1995. The group of participants is guided by a moderator or group facilitator who introduces topics for discussion and helps the group to. Focus groups generally utilize convenience sampling. It provided a series of openended questions with additional probes and prompts to encourage discussion and explore the issues in more depth. Analyzing focus group data the analysis and interpretation of focus group data require a great deal of judgment and care, just as any other scientific approach, and regardless of whether the analysis relies on quantitative or qualitative procedures. Focus group discussion conclusions blora district, central java november 2009 laura paler columbia university 1 main points there is a high demand for better government in blora, but ordinary citizens do not feel empowered to bring about change.329 267 889 270 1498 1338 1412 1046 31 1194 1066 116 764 466 253 278 364 726 750 908 867 1197 1142 217 70 1382 366 349 1285 650 497 1283 66 373 277 800 1111 1297 658